• Mar 16, 2023
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EarnscliffeLive: Critical minerals, geopolitical tensions…and opportunity

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Originally aired Thursday, March 16, 2023

A key objective of North American and European Governments is to establish, to the fullest extent possible, a complete value chain for electric vehicle (EV) manufacturing in their jurisdictions. A necessary condition is to ensure that essential Critical Mineral (CM) inputs be sourced within those jurisdictions, or at least from stable security and economic allies. A major constraint on that ambition is that China currently refines the majority of the world’s cobalt, and Rare Earth Elements, and extracts almost the entirety of the world’s Graphite – each being essential elements in the EV value chain.

The panel discussed how Canada, the United States and the EU are positioning themselves to eliminate dependence on China and explored what this development means for the production, processing, and value-add of Critical Minerals here in Canada.


Bud Locklear
Principal, Earnscliffe Strategies

With over 30 years of public policy and international relations experience  in both the United States and Canadian governments, Bud is a results-oriented team player with the proven ability to motivate and lead. His professional expertise includes climate, energy, environment, trade, and defence issues, as well as space and innovation policy. Prior to joining Earnscliffe, Bud served as Special Advisor for Energy and Environment at the United States Embassy in Ottawa. For over two decades Bud provided expert advice and analysis to decision-makers at the Embassy, U.S. Consulates General across Canada, and to officials in Washington D.C. on developments in Canadian economy, government, and society with an emphasis on climate, energy, environment, and trade issues.  During his tenure at the embassy Bud worked extensively with Canadian federal and provincial government officials to achieve mutually beneficial solutions across the border.

Mary Anne Carter
Principal, Earnscliffe Strategies

Mary Anne has provided federal and provincial government relations counsel to clients across a range of sectors, and has developed strategic plans in key industries, including trade, international affairs, transportation, cultural/heritage, education and health. She also has extensive experience working with national and international women’s organizations in her academic and professional careers. 

Mary Anne holds a Master of Laws degree from the University of Ottawa, and has extensive experience working with several not-for-profits, foundations, SMEs and large corporations. Her previous work includes the Canadian Chamber of Commerce, where she served as legal policy director, managing the business and competition law files as well as intellectual property policy. She also directed Canada’s international arbitration committee at the ICC International Court of Arbitration in Paris and the national tourism file. 

Mary Anne’s professional experience includes industry associations in both Ottawa and Washington, DC, ranging from mental health to international law. While in DC, she worked at the International Association of Women Judges where she worked with women judges from 90 different countries. She also received the Government of Ontario’s “Leading Women Building Communities Recognition Award” in 2017, and is a regular lecturer at the University of Ottawa’s Law School’s Legal Reform program. She is a director on the board of the Government Relations Institute of Canada and the Canadian Club of Ottawa; and has served as chair for the National Capital Region chapter of Equal Voice. 

Bradford Simmons
Senior Director for Energy and Resources, BowerGroupAsia

Brad manages BGA client relationships and engagements across the Indo-Pacific in the energy, climate and resource sectors. He brings over a decade of energy and climate public policy experience to BGA and is an expert in regional energy markets, supply chains and geopolitics. 

Prior to joining BGA, Brad served in the civil service at the U.S. departments of State and Energy. Brad holds a master’s degree in international affairs from the George Washington University’s Elliott School of International Affairs and a Bachelor of Arts in history and international affairs from Emory University. 

Mark Camilleri
President, Canada EU Trade and Investment Association

Mark Camilleri is a Brussels-based Canadian and European qualified lawyer with over 20 years of corporate, commercial, and regulatory law experience in the European Union, Canada, and the United Kingdom.

Mark is the founder and Principal at Camilleri Law, a Brussels based law firm that advises and assists clients on a variety of legal and regulatory matters, including advising on important regulatory developments of the EU Single Market.  Mark also represents clients on issues of EU public procurement and complex EU administrative matters.

Mark has extensive knowledge and experience across a broad range of industry sectors and has a keen interest in issues and regulation involving mining, energy, data regulation, ESG and Canadian-Atlantic trade.  Mark enjoys a large trans-Atlantic network developed over the course of his extensive international career.

Prior to establishing Camilleri Law, Mark worked in the London and Toronto offices of Fasken Martineau.

Mark is passionate about, and a strong advocate of, the Canada-EU relationship. Mark is the co-founder and President of the Canada EU Trade and Investment Association (CEUTIA) in Brussels and regularly speaks on issues involving the Canada-EU economic and strategic relationship.

Mark is a full member of the Brussels (Belgium/EU), Ontario (Canada) and England (United Kingdom) bars and is a Certified Information Privacy Professional (CIPP/E) and member of the International Association of Privacy Professionals (IAPP).

From 2017 to 2022, Mark was a part-time visiting professor at the Faculty of Law at KU Leuven (Belgium).

Mark holds an LL.M. in EU Law from KU Leuven, an LL.B./MBA from Dalhousie University, and a B.A. in International Relations from the University of Toronto.

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